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If one link becomes unusable, it does not incapacitate the entire system. When every message travels along a dedicated line, only the intended recipient sees it. Physical boundaries prevent other users from gaining access to messages.
Finally, point-to-point links make fault identification and fault isolation easy. Traffic can be routed to avoid links with suspected problems.
This facility enables the network manager to discover the precise location of the fault and aids in finding its cause and solution. First, because every device must be connected to every other device, installation and reconnection are difficult.
Second, the sheer bulk of the wiring can be greater than the available space in walls, ceilings, or floors can accommodate. For these reasons a mesh topology is usually implemented in a limited fashion, for example, as a backbone connecting the main computers of a hybrid network that can include several other topologies. Star Topology In a star topology, each device has a dedicated point-to-point link only to a central controller, usually called a hub.
The devices are not directly linked to one another. Unlike a mesh topology, a star topology does not allow direct traffic between devices. The controller acts as an exchange: If one device wants to send data to another, it sends the data to the controller, which then relays the data to the other connected device.
This factor also makes it easy to install and reconfigure. Far less cabling needs to be housed, and additions, moves, and deletions involve only one connection: between that device and the hub. If one link fails, only that link is affected. All other links remain active.
This factor also lends itself to easy fault identification and fault isolation. As long as the hub is working, it can be used to monitor link problems and bypass defective links. If the hub goes down, the whole system is dead. Although a star requires far less cable than a mesh, each node must be linked to a central hub.
For this reason, often more cabling is required in a star than in some other topologies such as ring or bus. High-speed LANs often use a star topology with a central hub. In Tree topology, the central controller can be active and passive. Bus Topology A bus topology is multipoint connection. One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices in a network. The bus cable is end with cable ends or Terminators each end.
A drop line is a connection running between the device and the main cable. A tap or T-Connector is a connector that either splices into the main cable or punctures the sheathing of a cable to create a contact with the metallic core. Therefore, it becomes weaker and weaker as it travels farther and farther. For this reason there is a limit on the number of taps a bus can support and on the distance between those taps. Backbone cable can be laid along the most efficient path, then connected to the nodes by drop lines of various lengths.
In this way, a bus uses less cabling than mesh or star topologies. In a star, for example, four network devices in the same room require four lengths of cable reaching all the way to the hub. Signal reflection at the taps can cause degradation in quality. This degradation can be controlled by limiting the number and spacing of devices connected to a given length of cable.
Adding new devices may therefore require modification or replacement of the backbone.
Data Communications and Networking by Behrouz A. Forouzan-4th Edition 42 Physical Topology In addition, a fault or break in the bus cable stops all transmission, even between devices on the same side of the problem. The damaged area reflects signals back in the direction of origin, creating noise in both directions. Bus topology was the one of the first topologies used in the design of early local area networks. Ethernet LANs can use a bus topology, but they are less popular now because of its disadvantages.
Ring Topology In a ring topology, each device has a dedicated point-to-point connection with only the two devices on either side of it. Forouzan-4th Edition 44 Physical Topology A signal is passed along the ring in one direction, from device to device, until it reaches its destination. Each device in the ring incorporates a repeater. When a device receives a signal intended for another device, its repeater regenerates the bits and passes them along. Each device is linked to only its immediate neighbors.
To add or delete a device requires changing only two connections. In addition, fault isolation is simplified. Generally in a ring, a signal is circulating at all times. If one device does not receive a signal within a specified period, it can issue an alarm.
The alarm alerts the network operator to the problem and its location. In a simple ring, a break in the ring such as a disabled station can disable the entire network. This weakness can be solved by using a dual ring or a switch capable of closing off the break. Today, the need for higher-speed LANs has made this topology less popular. For example, we can have a main star topology with each branch connecting several stations in a bus topology 48 Categories of Networks Today when we speak of networks, we are generally referring to three primary categories: local-area networks, metropolitan-area networks and wide-area networks.
The category into which a network falls is determined by its size. A LAN normally covers an area less than 2 miles. WAN can be worldwide.
Networks of a size in between are normally referred to as metropolitan-area networks and span tens of miles. Local Area Network A local area network LAN is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building, or campus. Depending on the needs of an organization and the type of technology used, a LAN can be as simple as two PCs and a printer in someone's home office; or it can extend throughout a company and include audio and video peripherals.
Currently, LAN size is limited to a few kilometers. The resources to be shared can include hardware e. A common example of a LAN, found in many business environments, links a workgroup of task-related computers, for example, engineering workstations or accounting PCs. Software can be stored on this central server and used as needed by the whole group. In this example, the size of the LAN may be determined by licensing restrictions on the number of users per copy of software, or by restrictions on the number of users licensed to access the operating system.
In general, LANs use only one type of transmission medium. The most common LAN topologies are bus, ring, and star. Early LANs had data rates in the 4 to 16 megabits per second Mbps range.