C, including most of the features included in the current ANSI standard. All of the programming SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF T. Construction Management JumpStart Second Edition; 3. Barbara J. (ebk); ISBN : (ebk); ISBN: (ebk) 1. Construction Management JumpStart: Second Edition, The Best First Step Toward a Career in .. Barbara J. Jackson, PhD, DBIA Construction Management t r a t S p m u J 2nd Edition The Best First Step Toward a Caree. DOWNLOAD PDF.
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Management. Jackson. Construction M anagem ent. JumpStart. 2nd. Edition ( pbk); ISBN (pbk); ISBN: (ebk); ISBN. Construction Management JumpStart 2nd Edition [Barbara J. Jackson] on Sybex; 2 edition (May 17, ); Language: English; ISBN Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. Launch Your Construction Management Construction Management JumpStart: The Best First Step Toward a Career in Construction Management 2nd Edition, Kindle Edition Why is ISBN important?.
The owner may also ask for safety records and individual credentials of their members. Payment contracts[ edit ] Lump sum: This is the most common type of contract. The construction manager and the owner agree on the overall cost of the construction project and the owner is responsible for paying that amount whether the construction project exceeds or falls below the agreed price of payment.
This contract is beneficial to the contractor since any additional costs will be paid for, even though they were unexpected for the owner.
The owner provides materials with a specific unit price to limit spending. Feasibility and design[ edit ] Feasibility and design involves four steps: programming and feasibility, schematic design, design development, and contract documents. It is the responsibility of the design team to ensure that the design meets all building codes and regulations.
It is during the design stage that the bidding process takes place. Decisions must be made on the building size, number of rooms, how the space will be used, and who will be using the space.
This must all be considered to begin the actual designing of the building. This phase is normally a written list of each room or space, the critical information about those spaces, and the approximate square footage of each area. Schematic design: Schematic designs are sketches used to identify spaces, shapes, and patterns.
Materials, sizes, colors, and textures must be considered in the sketches. Design development DD : This step requires research and investigation into what materials and equipment will be used as well as their cost. During this phase, the drawings are refined with information from structural, plumbing, mechanical, and electrical engineers.
It also involves a more rigorous evaluation how the applicable building codes will impact the project. Contract documents CDs : Contract documents are the final drawings and specifications of the construction project. They are used by contractors to determine their bid while builders use them for the construction process.
Contract documents can also be called working drawings. A notice to proceed is when the owner gives permission to the contractor to begin their work on the project. The first step is to assign the project team which includes the project manager PM , contract administrator, superintendent , and field engineer.
Contract administrator: The contract administrator assists the project manager as well as the superintendent with the details of the construction contract. Superintendent: It is the superintendent's job to make sure everything is on schedule including flow of materials, deliveries, and equipment. They are also in charge of coordinating on-site construction activities. During the pre-construction stage, a site investigation must take place. A site investigation takes place to discover if any steps need to be implemented on the job site.
This is in order to get the site ready before the actual construction begins. This also includes any unforeseen conditions such as historical artifacts or environment problems.
A soil test must be done to determine if the soil is in good condition to be built upon. This can be done by the general contractor if the company does all their own construction work. If the contractor does not do their own work, they obtain it through subcontractors. Subcontractors are contractors who specialize in one particular aspect of the construction work such as concrete, welding, glass, or carpentry.
Subcontractors are hired the same way a general contractor would be, which is through the bidding process. download orders are also part of the procurement stage. In this case, a download order is an agreement between a downloader and seller that the products downloadd meet the required specifications for the agreed price.
The pre-construction meeting is meant to make decisions dealing with work hours, material storage, quality control, and site access. The next step is to move everything onto the construction site and set it all up. Progress payments are partial payments for work completed during a portion, usually a month, during a construction period.
Progress payments are made to general contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers as construction projects progress. Payments are typically made on a monthly basis but could be modified to meet certain milestones.
Progress payments are an important part of contract administration for the contractor. Proper preparation of the information necessary for payment processing can help the contractor financially complete the project. This is to ensure that all materials, equipment, and quality meet the expectations of the owner that are included within the contract. This may cause disruption for surrounding businesses or homes. A popular method of dust control is to have a water truck driving through the site spraying water on the dry dirt to minimize the movement of dust within and out of the construction site.
When water is introduced mud is created. This mud sticks to the tires of the construction vehicles and is often lead out to the surrounding roads. A street sweeper may clean the roads to reduce dirty road conditions.
Environmental protections[ edit ] Storm water pollution : As a result of construction, the soil is displaced from its original location which can possibly cause environmental problems in the future. Runoff can occur during storms which can possibly transfer harmful pollutants through the soil to rivers, lakes, wetlands, and coastal waters. Endangered species: If endangered species have been found on the construction site, the site must be shut down for some time.
The construction site must be shut down for as long as it takes for authorities to make a decision on the situation. Once the situation has been assessed, the contractor makes the appropriate accommodations to not disturb the species. Vegetation: There may often be particular trees or other vegetation that must be protected on the job site. This may require fences or security tape to warn builders that they must not be harmed.
I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at nedde wiley. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex.
To Jim Rodger, for dedicating 26 years of his life to quality construction management education and for always putting the students first. Acknowledgments No great accomplishment ever happens in a vacuum.
There are always a lot of people behind the scenes who deserve much of the credit for any good thing that makes it to the light of day.
I believe this book is one of those good things, and it would never have happened without the hard work and dedication of several people. I want to start by thanking Sybex for launching the JumpStart series. I believe that it serves a unique purpose by introducing the public to a number of career paths that they may otherwise never encounter.
I am especially grateful to Elizabeth Peterson for discovering my web page and making the phone call asking whether I would be interested in writing this book.
I want to acknowledge her for recognizing construction management as the untapped career opportunity that it is. Elizabeth, by initiating this book on construction management, you have provided a great service to the construction industry and the clients it serves.
Thank you. I also want to thank the many other talented members of the Sybex team who helped put this book together. Next I want to give a special thanks to Suzanne Goraj, who cleaned up all of my grammatical gaffes and helped my message ring loud and clear.
And to Mae Lum, the pro- duction editor, a special thank-you for keeping everything on track while I traveled around the country teaching semi- nars and doing consulting work for the construction and design-build industry. Of course, I would be remiss without thanking the rest of the Sybex team responsible for tying up the loose ends and putting the whole thing together: In addition to the fine folks at Sybex, a number of other supporters must be mentioned. Let me start by acknowledging several authors, most of them good friends and fellow faculty, who have written really good texts used as general references in the writing of this book.
Managing the Construction Process: Schexnayder and Richard E. Paul, I greatly appreciate your support and assistance in helping me achieve this goal.
And as always, your abilities to communicate graphically were put to good use in several instances throughout the book.
To my department head, Allan Hauck, and to my colleagues and students at Cal Poly State University, thank you for putting up with my mental absences while I was focused on the completion of this book and for encour- aging me every step of the way.
And finally, as always and forever, I thank my husband Wayne for his continued support, love, and understanding year after year while I continue to pursue the passions of my heart. About the Author Barbara J. With over 20 years of experience as a licensed contractor and design-builder, she is a nationally recognized speaker and consultant on alternative project delivery. Contents xiii Terms to Know. Contents xv Cleanup and Trash Removal. Contents xvii Terms to Know. Introduction Congratulations!
You are about to embark on an adventure. This book is about the processes, the people, and the practices that we call construction management—a term and a profession that may be unfamiliar to many people.
Construction, as most individuals understand it, is an activity or a series of activities that involves some craftspeople, building materials, tools, and equipment. But you will learn that there is a great deal more to it than that. Buildings today can be very complicated, and the building process has become extremely demanding.
It takes savvy professional talent to orchestrate all of the means and methods needed to accomplish the building challenge. Its focus is on the construction process and those individuals who manage that process. Construction manage- ment involves the organization, coordination, and strategic effort applied to the construction activities and the numerous resources needed to achieve the building objective. Construction management combines both the art and science of build- ing technology along with the essential principles of business, management, com- puter technology, and leadership.
Construction management as a profession is a relatively new concept, which may explain why you have not heard of it before. Up until the s, the man- agement tasks associated with large construction projects were typically handled by civil engineers. But in , faculty from nine universities gathered in Florida to form the Associated Schools of Construction. What started as a movement to upgrade the status of construction education at universities evolved into a standard- ized construction management curriculum leading to an exciting new career choice, one for which there was increasing demand.
Men and women who love the idea of transforming a lifeless set of plans and specifications into something real—a single- family home, a high-rise office building, a biotech facility, a super highway, or a magnificent suspension bridge—had found an educational program that provided both the academic course work and the practical management tools needed to plan, organize, and coordinate the increasingly complex construction process.
If you are one of the many individuals who desire the intellectual challenges of architecture, engineering, technology, and business, yet long to be outside in the thick of things, getting your hands dirty and ultimately producing a tangible result—something of lasting value—then construction management might just be the ticket for you.
The purpose of this book is to give you a jump-start on understanding what construction management is all about. After reading this book, you will have a You will learn about the diverse tasks associated with planning, organizing, and managing a construction project to a successful end.
You will also discover the many opportunities available for an individual interested in pursuing a career in CM. You can continue to explore these opportunities by reading other books about construction management, by taking construction management classes, and by net- working with practitioners in the industry. And for those of you who want to take your interests and careers in construction to the next level, you can consider pursu- ing professional certification through either the American Institute of Constructors AIC or the Construction Management Association of America CMAA.
Both of these organizations and their certification programs are introduced in Chapter 1. Who Should Read This Book If you have picked up this book, I suspect that you have already experienced con- struction at some level and are curious about what construction management is. You may currently be working in construction on the building side as a craftsper- son or laborer and want to know how you can move over to the management side.
Or you may be a construction management student wanting a glimpse into the day-to-day challenges faced by the construction professional. On the other hand, you may currently have nothing to do with construction other than having a long- time interest in the building process. Some of you may have had a home built or a room added on and are simply interested in learning what the fuss was all about. I hope that architects and engineers will pick up this book to get a better understanding of the contractor side of the equation.
Some designers, tired of sitting behind a desk all day, may even contemplate giving construction manage- ment a try just for the heck of it. I suspect that there will be more than a few real estate agents, mortgage brokers, and interior designers who will use this book to become better informed regarding the construction process, integrating the new knowledge into the services they provide their clients.
Then, of course, there are those of you who are already working in construction management but have been looking for a resource that will help explain what it is you do for a living! No matter what your reason for downloading this book, I feel confident that it will be money well spent. For those of you who have little or no experience with construc- tion, I venture to guess that someday you will, and when you do, your knowledge and understanding of construction management will become quite valuable.
They are intended to drive home the challenges associated with con- struction and express the contribution that construction professionals make to the built environment. This book will assist you in communicating to clients, col- leagues, and the public at large the significant role that the construction manager plays in the overall success of a construction project. What This Book Covers This book walks you through the construction management process—explaining how you take a project from a set of two-dimensional drawings to a three-dimen- sional wood, steel, or concrete building, bridge, or highway.
Along the way, you will learn about the seven functions of construction management and how each of them contributes to the successful delivery of the construction project. Here you will learn about the different industry sectors and the roles of the various participants in the construction process. You will also learn about the construction contract and about each of the stages leading from design to post-construction.
This chapter deals with the esti- mating function of construction management. Here you will learn about the different types of estimates and how you price construction work. Contract administration is all about handling the red tape, business details, and paperwork of the con- struction project.
This chapter deals with organizing the job site and coordinating all of the manpower, materials, and equipment needed to get the work done. This chapter gets into the details of project control and explains how to get a job back on track if it should start to go off course. No proj- ect can succeed without well-established quality and safety plans. Construction management is all about managing risk. In this chapter, you will learn about a standardized process for iden- tifying, analyzing, and quantifying project risks so plans can be made to mitigate their impact.
Building infor- mation modeling takes 3D modeling to a whole new level. Although relatively new to the construction industry, the use of this technology is growing fast, and it will transform how construction managers do their jobs.
In addition, several special elements highlight important information. Notes provide extra information and references to related information. These terms are compiled in the Glossary at the end of the book. New terms provide explanations of important concepts in the margin of the page, where you can easily spot them. In This Chapter The construction industry is vast and varied. Just take a look around— from homes to highways to hospitals—and you see the results of this industry. Starting with the need for shelter, we first built primitive huts and houses.
Then we constructed buildings for assembly and churches in which to worship. As our needs expanded, so did our building capabili- ties. We eventually built political capitals, great cities bustling with busi- ness and commerce. Though the means and the methods have changed over the centuries, the construction industry is still about building com- munities that serve people. The industry employs about 7 million people directly plumbers, carpenters, welders, and so on and hundreds of thousands more indirectly.
It gives rise to the steel industry, the lumber industry, the carpet industry, the furniture industry, the paint industry, the concrete industry, the paving industry, and so on.
It goes even further than that if you consider the trucking, shipping, manufactur- ing, and mining industries. As construction projects become increasingly more complex, the challenges associated with managing these projects become more complicated.
The need for qualified construction managers is tremendous, and opportunities abound for those interested in the work. I have found that most people, including many who are already engaged in con- struction, do not understand the significance of the industry. The contractor is incidental. Let me give you a few recent examples to drive home my point. The distinctive architectural designs of Frank Gehry are known all over the world.
Not one single mention! This incredible construction challenge was accomplished by the M. Mortenson Company. In , the third-largest cathedral in the world and the first cathedral to be built in the United States in more than a quarter of a century was constructed in downtown Los Angeles. Designed by the world-renowned Spanish architect Professor Jose Rafael Moneo, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels stands 11 stories tall and weighs a whopping million pounds.
The cathe- dral rests on base isolators so that it will float up to 27 inches in any direction during an 8-point magnitude earthquake. Consider any of our architectural jewels: With a little research, you would find that each of these buildings is easily identified with their designers.
However, it would be a real challenge for you to discover that Morse Diesel International, Inc. To me, not recognizing and acknowledging the contractor along with the designers of these buildings is a grave injustice—but, unfortunately, indicative of how our society views the construction industry. Apparently, to some people it is not very important.
Well, let me explain why it is very important. Drawing a pretty picture on paper or calculating a complex engineering formula does not make a building real—construction does, and that takes tremendous creativity, ingenuity, tenacity, skill, blood, sweat, and tears.
So remember, no matter how outstanding the design, it is not architecture until somebody builds it! But it should, because without these contributions, this world would be a very bleak place.
When you walk out of your office, home, or classroom today, just take a good look at the world around you. I want you to notice the houses, the churches, the hospitals, the shopping malls, the theaters, the baseball stadi- ums, the bridges, the streets, and even the cars driving around.
None of these would exist without construction. There would be no commerce, no transportation, and no manufacturing. Our society, our economy, and our culture are all dependent upon the construction industry. So, the next time you hear someone complaining about construction workers stirring up dust at the intersection or delaying their trip to work in the morning, I hope that you will take the time to point out what our world would be like without construction.
It is larger than the automobile and steel industries put together. Housing starts which are identified by building permits issued are one of the major economic indicators reflecting the overall health and direction of our economy. According to the U. The U. Department of Labor estimates that there are at least , con- struction companies employing just under 7.
Construction offers more opportunities than most other industries for individuals who want to own and run their own businesses, and statistically an additional 1. Construction impacts the quality of life for every human being and plays a major role in all of society and has for a very long time.
Anyone who is involved in construction—from the grading laborer to the electrician to the estimator to the construction manager to the construction company executive—needs to understand that what they do makes a big difference in the world.
Construction has been around a very, very long time. Construction means, methods, and motivations have changed over the past 12, years or so, and the trek has been absolutely fascinating. A Historical Perspective The purpose of spending some time on the history of the construction industry is to further reveal the impact of construction on society.
As you read this brief his- tory, imagine the creativity, ingenuity, and tenacity that these early constructors must have possessed in order to achieve such extraordinary building achievements. What started as a craft motivated by necessity shelter from the elements gradu- ally turned into building science motivated by curiosity, intrigue, and genius. The building challenges of today are just as complex as in the past and are even more sophisticated, inspiring the same attributes exhibited by the early master builders.
Ancient Times Although agriculture is probably recognized as the oldest industry in history, construction is most likely a close second.
The construction industry can trace its roots back to at least the Stone Age, as early as BC. Using materials read- ily available—mud, wood, and stone—early man began constructing simple The Construction Industry 5 structures for protection from the rain, cold, heat, and snow.
During this same period, the development of bronze and iron allowed man to make stronger tools that significantly expanded the possibilities in building construction, allowing builders to develop their skills. As construction skills and tool development increased, real expertise in the building trades began to emerge.
Simple shelter grew into planned settlements, villages, and cities. Soon, the need for common gathering places became part of the building challenge, and this period saw the start of public building for spe- cial events, religious ceremonies, manufacturing, and commerce. Small villages became large cities, and large cities grew into great civilizations, and at the heart of it all was construction.
Egypt and the Pyramids Many of these early civilizations were building with one of the first manufactured building materials, dried mud bricks. However, the Egyptians began to use stone as their primary building material. Although the process of moving these very large masses of rock was difficult, to say the least, the ingenuity of these ancient builders conquered these challenges, resulting in some of the most fascinating building projects in all of history—the great pyramids.
At this time, there was really no distinction between architecture, engineering, or construction. All three disciplines were embodied in one person—the master builder. The master builder concept would survive for many years, until the complexity of structures and construction techniques warranted a separation of disciplines. It was during the building of the pyramids that the first known building code was recorded, dating back to approximately — BC.
These written rules and responsibilities were among the laws carved into stone tablets, collectively known as the Code of Hammurabi. The building code dictated acceptable work- manship standards for the master builder. Failure to meet these standards brought stiff penalties, in some cases including death. Greek Influence During the pyramid-building era, the Egyptians used large numbers of unskilled workers to construct their massive undertakings.
However, the Greek master build- ers, who were building many beautiful temples made of marble and limestone such as the Parthenon in Athens , started to organize and utilize small groups of skilled stonemasons. This idea of congregating workmen around a particular craft repre- sents the beginning of the building trades concept, in which a particular building skill is honed to a level of expertise associated with a master craftsman. Although much of the work was still performed by an unskilled workforce, the use of skilled artisans allowed for a finer detail and design to be applied to the architecture.
This is clearly a turning point in construction history. During the Roman Empire, sig- nificant strides were made in construction techniques. An early form of concrete, a staple in every present-day building project, was invented by the Romans. This early version consisted of a pasty, hydrated lime and pozzolan ash mixture made from rock. In addition to utilizing concrete in the foundations of their structures, the Romans began adding domes and arches to their buildings, achieving engi- neering and construction feats that were astounding.
The first glass was also incorporated in the first century AD and decorated many Roman structures. Road construction was another highlight of the Roman Empire, and many of these ancient pathways are still carrying trav- elers today.
Around 40 BC, a Roman writer, engineer, and architect named Marcus Vitruvius Pollio wrote the first design and construction handbook. His writings included topics on building materials, construction processes, building styles, road and bridge design, water-heating techniques, acoustics, and other build- ing physics.
The master builder was responsible for both the design and the supervision of the construction. The Middle Ages With the downfall of the Roman Empire came a real decline in building activity and technology. Then around AD, the powerful Roman Catholic Church revitalized stone construction as it intensely pursued church and cathedral building through- out Europe. Even during this somewhat stagnant period, great building efforts were taking place. Glorious Gothic cathedrals highlighted the European landscape, and many other impressive structures were being designed and built all over the world.
Craft training and education became a major focus, and craft guilds were organized, even forming special brotherhoods around specific trades. Building construction became a major industry in and of itself. The two most important building trades were carpenters and stonemasons. Three distinct stages of abil- ity were recognized—master, journeyman, and apprentice.
These three stages of organized labor are still widely recognized today among the trade unions. The Renaissance Toward the end of the Middle Ages, a renewed interest in architecture, building, and science took place, continuing the transformation and evolution of construction The Construction Industry 7 and building design.
It was during this time that the concept of the master builder began to be questioned as the most efficient way to build. Leone Battista Alberti, considered by some to be the precursor to the modern-day architect, argued that he could create drawings and models as a way to direct master crafts- men without actually being involved in the building process. Alberti was a theo- retical architect rather than a practical hands-on architect-builder. He furnished plans of his buildings but never participated in the actual construction.
This was the first application of a new philosophy that would eventually separate design and construction as distinct functions. Interestingly, there is a real push today to return to the master builder concept—but with the recognition that the modern master builder is a collaborative team.
The construc- tion industry was no exception. As construction became recognized as separate and unique from design, more theoretical concepts involving physics, mathemat- ics, chemistry, and thermodynamics were being applied, and building science as a discipline began to emerge. The various building professions took on increasingly defined roles—the art of architecture, the science of engineering, and the craft of building became even more distinct.
As architecture moved further away from the building process, the engineering disciplines took on a greater role for overall technical coordination, while general contractors were left to assemble, organize, and manage the labor force, equipment, and materials on a project.
Cast iron and wrought iron became the building materials of choice. These materials were being used to build bridges, railways, great exhibition halls, and various other buildings. New machinery and equipment such as steam shovels, steam ham- mers, and pile drivers were being invented to support building.
The transforma- tion of construction into a modern industry began during this period of time. The Age of the Skyscraper During the late s, the production of steel and electricity really took center stage as factors that would influence the construction industry in a big way.
It was a time of immense growth in building technology. Steel framing replaced iron framing and allowed for high-rise building. Portland cement and reinforced concrete were invented. Glass was now being mass-produced and was used to clad many of these new building frames. The dream of constructing tall buildings reaching to the sky became a reality when E.
Otis invented the first passenger elevator. Building sky- scrapers was seen as a way to conserve land as the pace of growth in American cities became a concern. Technological advancements in building science continued, elec- tric power became commonplace in all structures, and advancements in heating and cooling systems made life easier for people in all climates of the world.
Although most building was still being performed by small and medium-sized companies, much larger organizations were forming, and the globalization of the construc- tion industry had begun. Opportunities for extensive projects in housing, indus- try, transportation, and city development were popping up all over the world. The construction industry developed into a major economic sector. The 20th Century Although only a few advances in materials or technologies took place during the 20th century, new challenges were being imposed upon the construction industry.
The demand for housing, industry, and infrastructure was enormous. Time, cost, and quality became critical concerns for those needing new facilities. The construction industry responded.
Mechanized tools, panelized construction, and prefabrication inspired a whole new way to view the building process. New techniques emerged to help regulate and standardize building materials and meth- ods.
Building codes, standards, and specifications were established to help regulate and control the quality of materials and methods. Over time, as more residential, commercial, and industrial development started to spring up, new issues such as the environment, energy conservation, sustainability, safety, and workforce diver- sity started to add to the complexity of the building process in a way that had never been seen before.
The industry began to recognize that the correlation between sound management techniques and successful building practices was very important to the success of a project. The ability to measure and monitor progress and economic effectiveness of the construction process became more important as projects became increasingly complex.
Although the discipline of engineering had been tapped to provide the management function for years, a new distinction was being drawn. As early as , a new educational program that focused specifically on construction was popping up at a few universities across the country. These early programs eventually evolved into what is now recognized as construction man- agement. The idea was to merge management principles, methodologies, and tech- niques with the art, science, and craft of building and create a unique educational experience.
In addition to teaching building science, the program introduced esti- mating, scheduling, project controls, and project administration techniques.
The Construction Industry 9 Today, there are approximately four-year colleges and universities listed with ASC offering construction management curricula. The programs are typically identified as construction management, construction engineering, engineering tech- nology, building science, or construction science, and they are often affiliated with colleges or schools of engineering, architecture, or technology.
The Age of Technology New technologies are impacting every aspect of our lives. The construction industry is no exception. There are computer applications across all aspects of the construction management function: Computers are available on every job site, and increas- ingly we are seeing all kinds of field mobility software and tablet computers being applied to every aspect of the construction management process that can be used to initiate a schedule or download order change in an instant.
Technologies such as global positioning systems GPS , com- puter-aided earth-moving systems, and building information modeling BIM are allowing construction managers to enter and interact with buildings that exist only in cyberspace. These virtual mock-ups are real enough to evaluate things as simple as whether welders have enough room to work in a confined space and more seri- ous issues such as the impact of a powerful hurricane on an entire facility.
Craft to Industry Spon Press, It is a fascinating read and takes a very comprehensive look at the many factors that influenced the growth of the con- struction industry from the collapse of the Roman Empire to planning for the global frontiers of the future. Industry Sectors The facility needs of a society are vast and varied.
People need places to live, wor- ship, work, receive medical care, shop, be educated, exercise, vacation, and gener- ally engage life. From a facilities standpoint, all of these needs taken together are Although many other industries assist in creating the built environment, construction ultimately delivers it. Each of these different facility needs is manifested as a different market or sector of the construction industry.